Educators should be aware that, with the exception of the Grade 10 course Digital Technology and Innovations in the Changing World, 2023 (ICD2O), the 2008 computer studies curriculum remains in effect. All secondary computer studies courses for Grades 11–12 will continue to be based on that document. All references to Grade 10 that appear in The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 10 to 12: Computer Studies, 2008 have been superseded by Digital Technology and Innovations in the Changing World, 2023. As of September 2023, this course replaces Introduction to Computer Studies, Grade 10 (ICS2O), which expired at the end of the 2022–23 school year.


Computer Studies



The definitions provided in this glossary are specific to the curriculum context in which the terms are used.


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arithmetic operators

Arithmetic operators include: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, modulo, and exponentiation. These operators are used to represent mathematical expressions in programs.


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Boolean operators

Boolean operators are operators such as AND, OR, and NOT. These operators are used in conditional statements to make decisions in programming.


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comparison operators

Comparison operators include: equal to, not equal to, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, and less than or equal to. These operators are used to compare multiple numeric values. These operators are often used in conditional programming statements.

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computational artifacts

Computational artifacts are objects that a computing system can employ to carry out a task. Programs are the most typical artifact. Others include interactive websites and machine learning models used in artificial intelligence (AI) systems.

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computational thinking

Computational thinking is a problem-solving technique that uses decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. Solving a problem using computational thinking concepts and processes often, but not always, involves designing and writing a program. 

See also the section “Computational Thinking”.


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digital technology

Digital technology is a broad term that refers to electronic systems, devices, and applications that generate, store, process, and/or manage data.


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A program is a set of instructions that a computer can execute to provide a desired outcome based on the needs of a user. Programs are usually based on algorithms, and can be written using block-based or text-based programming environments. Programs can also be referred to as applications or software. 


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text operators

Text operators include comparison, concatenation, and indexing.

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