D1. Data Literacy:
manage, analyse, and use data to make convincing arguments and informed decisions, in various contexts drawn from real life
describe the difference between qualitative and quantitative data, and describe situations where each would be used
Provide students with different questions of interest, and have them identify whether qualitative or quantitative data is needed to answer each question.
When students are creating their own questions of interest, have them identify whether the data they need to collect is qualitative or quantitative and explain why.
collect data from different primary and secondary sources to answer questions of interest that involve comparing two or more sets of data, and organize the data in frequency tables and stem-and-leaf plots
Have students collect one piece of information from different populations and compare the results. For example, students might be interested in knowing how many students in each grade speak one language, and how many speak more than one. Have them organize the data in a frequency table like the following:
Have students collect and organize data on a question of interest that requires them to use secondary sources and make comparisons. For example, how many trees are planted in Ontario each year? Once students become comfortable working with these types of questions, have them gather data for multiple comparisons, such as the number of trees planted for a biodiversity project. Have students organize the data in a frequency table with multiple columns.
Have students organize the following list of data values using a stem-and-leaf plot. The data values represent the number of minutes that students read on a single night.
Data collected: 10, 15, 5, 35, 20, 10, 5, 20, 35, 35, 30, 10, 15, 15, 25, 15, 25
select from among a variety of graphs, including multiple-bar graphs, the type of graph best suited to represent various sets of data; display the data in the graphs with proper sources, titles, and labels, and appropriate scales; and justify their choice of graphs
Provide students with two sets of stem-and-leaf plots displaying the number of minutes that students in Grades 4, 5, and 6 have read on Saturday and Sunday. Have them create a multiple-bar graph that shows the Grade 4, 5, and 6 data (total number of minutes) for Saturday, side by side, and the Grade 4, 5, and 6 data (total number of minutes) for Sunday, side by side.
Then have them create a second multiple-bar graph that shows the total number of minutes side by side for each grade, i.e., the Saturday and Sunday data for Grade 4 would be side by side, the Saturday and Sunday data for Grade 5 would be side by side, and the Saturday and Sunday data for Grade 6 would be side by side. Discuss how the two graphs show different information about the data.
Have students collect and display data about the favourite subjects of students in Grades 4, 5, and 6. Have them represent the data in a frequency table and in a variety of graphs, including multiple-bar graphs. Experiences like this help students develop critical-thinking skills as they decide what they want their graph to reveal about the data.
create an infographic about a data set, representing the data in appropriate ways, including in frequency tables, stem-and-leaf plots, and multiple-bar graphs, and incorporating any other relevant information that helps to tell a story about the data
To deepen students' understanding of what an infographic is and what it is used for, provide them with an infographic that has already been created, such as the “Junior Read-A-Thon” infographic found in the examples for D1.4. Ask questions to support their analysis. For example, ask what audience they think the infographic was intended for, or what messages they think the writer was trying to share.
Have students collect other infographics and, as a class, make a list of the features they see in the infographics. Discuss how these features can change depending on the audience and what story is being told about the data.
Have students create a story about the data they collected for a question of interest, for example, ways to support waste reduction through the school. Have them identify the audience they want to share their story with and what visuals and other key pieces of information they want to use to tell their story.
determine the mean and the median and identify the mode(s), if any, for various data sets involving whole numbers, and explain what each of these measures indicates about the data
The following is a list of responses from nine students to the question “How many cousins do you have?”: 24, 16, 30, 0, 14, 35, 14, 8, 3
Step 1: Rearrange the numbers in order from least to greatest.
Step 2: Identify the number in the middle.
Step 1: Add all the numbers:
Step 2: Divide the sum by the number of values:
Provide data sets with a median that is easy to calculate – such as a set with 16 and 18 as middle numbers, so students can see that 17 is exactly halfway between them. For example:
Here is a stem-and-leaf plot showing the responses from eight students to the question “How many minutes have you pledged to read each day during the Read-A-Thon?”
Have students determine the mean, median, and mode for data collected from a variety of sources for a variety of purposes. Purposes could include cross-curricular applications such as science experiments.
analyse different sets of data presented in various ways, including in stem-and-leaf plots and multiple-bar graphs, by asking and answering questions about the data and drawing conclusions, then make convincing arguments and informed decisions
Provide students with a stem-and-leaf plot, a pictograph, a bar graph, or a multiple-bar graph, and ask them what questions they have about the data. Model the act of posing questions to support students in posing their own questions. For example (using the graphs below):
Throughout the year, have students collect a variety of representations of real-life data about topics that interest them. Model asking questions using the three types of questions outlined in Task 1, and have students pose and answer their own questions, requiring them to think critically about the data.