D1. Data Literacy:
manage, analyse, and use data to make convincing arguments and informed decisions, in various contexts drawn from real life
identify situations involving one-variable data and situations involving two-variable data, and explain when each type of data is needed
Provide students with a bar graph, a histogram, a broken-line graph, a circle graph, and a scatter plot. Have them identify the single variables on the bar graph, histogram, and circle graph, and identify the two variables on the broken-line graph and scatter plot.
collect continuous data to answer questions of interest involving two variables, and organize the data sets as appropriate in a table of values
Have students pick a question of interest from a list containing a variety of questions that you share, such as:
Providing students with examples of possible questions of interest can support them in coming up with their own.
select from among a variety of graphs, including scatter plots, the type of graph best suited to represent various sets of data; display the data in the graphs with proper sources, titles, and labels, and appropriate scales; and justify their choice of graphs
Provide students with a variety of data sets related to different questions of interest. Have them create a graph for each data set and provide a rationale for their choice of graph. This type of activity will consolidate students’ learning about which graphs are appropriate for different types of data and will provide opportunities for them to make sense of graphs they may encounter in everyday life.
create an infographic about a data set, representing the data in appropriate ways, including in tables and scatter plots, and incorporating any other relevant information that helps to tell a story about the data
To deepen their understanding of what an infographic is and its purpose, have students examine the features and messages of an infographic, such as the “Let’s Get Moving!” infographic found in the examples for D1.4. Ask questions such as:
Have students create an infographic for previously collected data to share information. For example, students might want to share information with the parent council on a relevant topic. Ask students to identify their audience, what message(s) they want to get across, what data visualization techniques they will use, and any other information that will help them to share their message. Have students share their ideas with a peer to check that their message is coming through before they share with the intended audience.
use mathematical language, including the terms “strong”, “weak”, “none”, “positive”, and “negative”, to describe the relationship between two variables for various data sets with and without outliers
Have students create a scatter plot of data they have collected to answer a question of interest that involves two variables. Then have them describe the strength of the relationship between the two variables. For those that have a strong relationship, have students make predictions about other possible data points.
analyse different sets of data presented in various ways, including in scatter plots and in misleading graphs, by asking and answering questions about the data, challenging preconceived notions, and drawing conclusions, then make convincing arguments and informed decisions
Show students the “Cost of Services” graph below, and ask them what they notice and wonder. Support students in recognizing that the graph can be misleading because it presents one-dimensional information using three-dimensional cubes, making the difference between the data points look deceptively large. Students can use their knowledge of volume to determine that the last cube is 64 times as large as the first one. Yet the last money amount is only about four times as large as the first one.
Ask students to look at the data they collected for their question of interest. Ask them what they notice about the data. For example, are there any surprises in the data, and, if so, what might explain them? Then ask students whether their data helps them answer their question or whether it raises more questions. Ask students whether they can begin to make any conclusions from their data and how they might use the data to make convincing arguments and informed decisions. If students do not have enough data, have them identify what further information they need to answer their question of interest.