This curriculum policy replaces The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 and 10: Native Studies, 1999 and The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12: Native Studies, 2000. All courses in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit studies (formerly named “Native studies”) are now based on the expectations outlined in this curriculum policy.


First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Studies (2019)



The definitions provided in this glossary are specific to the curriculum context in which the terms are used.


1973 land claims policy

A policy created by the federal government to negotiate and settle Aboriginal rights and title claims. This policy is also known as the comprehensive land claims policy, and the agreements under the policy are also known as modern treaties.



A term sometimes used for the descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. Section 35(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982, states, “In this Act, ‘aboriginal peoples of Canada’ includes the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.” These separate groups have unique heritages, languages, cultural practices, and spiritual beliefs.

Aboriginal title

The inherent right of Indigenous peoples to their lands. The Canadian legal system recognizes Aboriginal title as sui generis – that is, it is unique in that it derives from Indigenous peoples’ occupation of the land since time immemorial. See also sui generis.


A parka worn by Inuit women that allows a baby or young child to be carried on either the back or front of the woman’s body and to be moved from one position to the other without exposing the child to the elements.


A group of culturally related First Nations peoples living in central Canada and the United States, including the Algonquin, Odawa, Ojibwe, Potawatomi, and Oji-Cree.


The traditional Mãori name for New Zealand, the word means “the land of the long white cloud”.